Cornel Kernowek: Hager-Awel

Lowena dhewgh, bobel vas! Otta neppeth nowyth war an wiasva ma: Cornel Kernowek. Na wruga’vy dismygya an goloven ma ow honan, bettegens, ma hi ow tos a lever termyn Federacyon Cowethasow Kernow Coth, henwys Old Cornwall.



(Logo Cowethas Kernow Coth, tardhle:

Anji a wre ri whedhlow yn Kernowek ynno; drollys on’ji yn fenowgh.

Nag on’ji yn FSS, nag yn spellyans a ellowgh whi gweles lieskweyth y’n dedhyow ma. Pan ujy Old Cornwall dalethys yn 1925 yth esen’ji owth usya an spellyans coth o dismygyes gans Henry Jenner. Ytho Cornel Kernuak o hanow an goloven ena. Pan wrug apperya an text yth esov vy ri dhewgh hedhyw, Cornel Kernewek o scrifys ganjans.

Cornish for All gans Mordon o dyllys yn 1929 ha Kernewek Unys ynno (Kernowek Unnys yn FSS). Rag yth o dyllys agan whedhel ni yn 1931, ma va ow cul sens del esen’ji ow scrifa Kernewek yn le Kernuak.

Ytho, ma va ow hevely bos an whedhel yn dann yn Kernowek Unnys. Nag o’vy sur prag yth esen’ji owth usya nosow junya yntra lowr a eryow, rag nag on’ji y’n textow Kernowek Unnys a wruga’vy redya. (Rag bos scrifys an geryow na warbarth y’n textow Kernowek Kres, martesen?) Bettegens, yth esov vy ow predery bos an text en Kernowek Unnys whath.

My a wrug trovya del o scrifys an whedhel gans Mordon (, bes nag yw y hanow a ugh an text bo yn danno. Marj ujy y wodhvos gans nebonan, scrifewgh dhemm, mar pleg!

Na vern piw a scrifas an whedhel ma, ma riys ganjo/genjy treylyans Sowsnek ynwedh. Ma gwres genam treusscrif FSS hag y worra warlergh an text gwreydhek.

Otta, an drolla Hager-Awel:

Yth-esa myghtern ow-rewlya yn pell pow hag a-vynna derghevel pen-eglos yn y ben-cyté a-vya an marthussa eglos a’y wlascor; mes scant nag-o-hy ganso fundyes pan welas pur ylyn ny-vya gesys dhodho mona lour yn y arghow rag hy dewedha.

Hag ef ow-kerdhes y-honen war un meneth ughel a-savas a-dref dh’y lys ryal, ha predery fatel alla cavos moy arghans hep compressa re y sojettys boghosek, y-teth er-y-byn un den byghan pur-goynt y semlant hag a-lavaras dhodho, “Prag yth-osta gyllys yndella yn prederow?”

“Prag na-vyen-vy gyllys yn prederow,” an myghtern a-worthebas, “aban us dallethys genef pen-eglos vras, ha res vyth dhem lemmyn hy gasa heb dewedha, rag fout a vona lour y’m arghow rag perna an dafar rygthy, na rag pe an dus-whel es orth-hy-sevel?”

“Byth na-wra dughan awos henna; ny-res dhes serry, rag my ow-honen a-wra cowl-dherghevel an eglos ragos, ha fest o[n?]en dek a-vyth, na-s-tevyth hy far y’n wlascor-ma, na ny-vennaf govyn orthys un demma a vona,” yn-meth an denyk.

“Pandr’a-vynta-jy kemeres a-dhyworthyf, ytho?” yn-meth an myghtern.

“Mara kyllyth dysmegy, pan vyth cowl-wres an eglos genef, py hanow oma gylwys byth ny-wovynnaf orthys travyth ken,” yn-meth an denyk; “mes mara fyllyth a’n dra-na, res vyth dheso ry dhem dha golon dha-honen!”

An myghtern a-aswonas lemmyn an pyth na-aswonna kens— bos an denyk nep bucca an meneth; mes awos henna ef a-ambosas dodho kepar yn bys del wovynnas, rag del dybya, nefra ny-vya dewedhes yn termyn y vewnans-ef a-wodhfya predery war nep tra noweth a-alsa bos gores dhedhy, ha wosa kelly y vewnans, byth ny-vya dagrow dh’y dheulagas awos kelly y golon.

Nyns-o gwelys ow-cones yn golow deth orth derghevel an eglos den vyth marnas an bucca, mes betegens, y-savas pup nos mar uskys, mar uskys, namnag-o cowl-wres kens pen-vys—pen-eglos marthus tek ha bras na-s-teva hy far yn oll an wlas-na— rag tasygow an meneth a-dheth, yn ketep pen, wosa hy bos nos tewal, ha gones yn pryveth orty.

Own dhodho lemmyn a’y ambos dybreder re-be gwres ganso dhe’n bucca, an myghtern eth arta dhe’n meneth esa a-dref dh’y lys, rag bos y-honen, mar calla predery war neppyth aral a-alsa bos gores whath dhe’n eglos; mes hag ef ow-kerdhes oges dhe un fow esa down y’n dor, ena y-clewas, del hevella, lef flogh byghan esa owth-ola wherow, ha’y vam a-gana dhodho rag y gomfortya, maga fedhal avel marghvran nownek, bo oges d’y:—

Na-ol, na-ol, ow meppyk whek;

Ha mar qureth tewel,

Sur, Hager-Awel,

Dha das, a-dhe

Avorow tre,

Ow-try colon myghtern, genes a-blek,

Dhe wary gensy, yn tegan tek!

Kyn nag-o mas-kenys hep nam an geryow-na, whath an myghtern a-ve lowenhés yn-fras orth-aga-clewes, rag dredha y-wodhfe hanow an bucca!— Ef a-drussas a’n meneth pur-uskys, ow-ponya yn-nans bys dhe’n cyté, hag ena ef a-welas bos an bucca ow-mos yn-ban, bus yn ughella pynakel an eglos, rag settya warnodho an culyek-awel goroures a-wrussa hy dewedha.

Ef pan welas henna, war-not y-cryas pur-ughel orto, “Set e yn-compes, Hager-Awel!” ha bucca an meneth, kettel glewas bos dysmygys y hanow, a-godhas, scat! dyworth an pynakel bys y’n lur, ha terry ena dhe vyl dymmyk munys, kepar ha pan ve-va gwres a weder tanow! Ha mars elleugh-why nep termyn dhe’n cyté-na, why a-wello whath an ben-eglos, dhedhy culyek-awel cammes poran kepar del y-n-gasas.

An fin.


Notennow an auctour:

Denyk, pl. tusygow [SWF denik, pl. tusigow], diminutive of den, pl. tus, imitates Breton denik, tudigoù.

Na-aswonna is correct, na- only becoming nag- before vowels in bos and mos. The rule given in Cornish for All, p. 26, inluding other vowels, was based only on the misleading translation of nag omlanar, M.C. 25, and is therefore to be corrected. The rule of course includes namna(g), erna(g) and the imperative particle na(g)-, the g being confined to bos and mos, and not used before verbs like aswon, entra, eva, ola, or those beginning with the reflexive prefix, om-.

The other word na(g), “nor,” does take g before all vowels. Though there are instances of its omission (M.C. 225, C.W. 993, 1216, 1354) these are not to be imitated.

Prag, while followed by y(th), except in negative questions, in these requires na(g)-. Note the difference betweeen, e.g., a-wreta? an-ny-wreta? and prag y-whreta? prag na-wreta?



There was a king ruling in a far country who wanted to build a cathedral in his capital that should be the most wonderful church of his kingdom; but scarcely was it founded by him when he very clearly saw there would not be left to him money enough in his coffers to finish it.

As he was walking alone on a high mountain that rose behind his royal palace, and pondering how he might get more money without too much oppressing his poor subjects, there met him a little man of a very unusual appearance who said to him, “Why art thou so gone into though (anxious)?”

“Why should I not be gone into thought,” the king replied, “since there is begun by me a great cathedral, and I shall have to leave it now unfinished, for lack of money enough in my coffers  to buy the material for it, or to pay the workmen who are building it?”

“Never make lamentation on that account. Thou needst not trouble, for I myself will finish building the church for thee, and a right fair one shall it be, that shall not have its peer in this realm, nor will I ask of thee one dime of money,” said the mannikin.

“What wilt thou take from me, then?” said the king.

“If thou canst guess, when the church shall be completed by me, what name I am called, I shall never ask anything more of thee,” said the dwarf; “but if thou shalt fail of that thing, thou must needs give me thine own heart!”

The king knew now what he had not known before— that the dwarf was some gnome of the mountain; but in spite of that he promised to him exactly as he asked, for as he thought, never should a church such as he would demand be finished in his lifetime, for every day he would be able to think on some new thing that might be added to it, and after losing his life there would never be tears in his eyes about losing his heart.

Nobody was seen working by daylight at building the church except the gnome, but nevertheless it rose each night so rapidly, so rapidly, that it was almost finished before the month’s end— a wondrous fair and great cathedral hat had not its equal in all that land— for the dwarfs of the mountain came, every one, after it was dark night and worked in secret at it.

In dread now about his rash promise that had been made by him to the gnome, the king went again to the mountain that was behind his palace, to be alone, if (in case) he might be able to think upon something else that could still be added to the church; but as he walked near to a cave that was deep in the ground, there he heard, as it seemed, the voice of a little child that was weeping bitterly, and his mother that sang to him to comfort him, as softly as a hungry raven, or near it: —

weep not ,weep not, my darling boy;

Hush altogether,

And then Foul-Weather,

Thy dad, will come

To-morrow home, 

Bringing a king’s hear, for thy joy,

To play withal, as a pretty toy,

Although these words were not entirely well sung, yet the king was greatly rejoiced to hear them, for by them he knew the gnome’s name!— He packed off from the mountain right speedily, running down even to the city, and there he saw that the gnome was going up, even to the highest pinnacle of the church, to place upon it the gilded weather-cock that should finish it.

When he saw that, on the instant he cried very loudly to him, “Set it straight, Foul-Weather!” and directly the gnome of the mountain heard that his name was found out, he fell, crash! from the pinnacle on to the ground, and there broke into a thousand tiny little bits, just as if he had been made of thin glass! And if you go at any time to that city you may see the cathedral still, with its weather-cock awry just as he left it.


Treusscrif FSS:

Yth esa mytern ow rewlya en pell pow hag a vynna derevel penneglos yn y benncita a via an marthussa eglos a’y wlascor; mes scant nag o hi ganjo fondyes pan welas pur ylyn na via gesys dhodho mona lowr yn y arhow rag hy diwedha.

Hag ev ow kerdhes y honan war unn menedh uhel a savas a-drev dh’y lys riel, ha predery fatel alla cavos moy arhans heb compressa re y sojets bohojek, y teuth er y byn unn den bian pur goynt y semlant hag a lavaras dhodho, “Prag yth osta gyllys yndella yn prederow?”

“Prag na vien vy gyllys yn prederow,” an mytern a worthebas, “a-ban eus dalethys genev peneglos vras, ha res vydh dhemm lemmyn hy gasa heb diwedha, rag fowt a vona lowr y’m arhow rag perna an daffar rygdhy, na rag pe an dus whel eus orth hy sevel?”

“Byth na wra duhan (= kynvan) awos henna; ny res dhes serry, rag my ow honan a wra cowl-dherevel an eglos ragos, ha fest onan deg a vydh, na’s tevydh hy far y’n wlascor ma, na ny vennav govyn orthis unn demma a vona,” yn-medh an denik.

“Pandr’a vynta jy kemeres a-dhyworthiv, ytho?” yn-medh an mytern.

“Mara kyllydh dismygy, pan vydh cowl-wres an eglos genev, py hanow oma gylwys byth ny wovynnav orthis tra vyth ken,” yn-medh an denik; “mes mara fyllydh a’n dra na, res vydh dheso ri dhemm dha golon dha honan!”

An mytern a aswonas lemmyn an pyth na aswonna kens— bos an denik neb bocka an menedh; mes awos henna ev a ambosas dhodho kepar yn bys del wovynnas, rag del dybya (= tyby), nevra ny via diwedhes yn termyn y vewnans ev a wodhvia predery war neb tra nowyth a alja bos gorres dhedhy, ha woja kelly y vewnans, byth ny via dagrow dh’y dhewlagas awos kelly y golon.

Nynj o gwelys ow conis (= ‘to work’ omma) yn golow dedh orth derevel an eglos den vyth marnas an bocka, mes bettegens, y savas pub nos mar uskys, mar uskys, namnag o cowl-wres kens penn vis— penn eglos marthus teg ha bras na’s teva hy far yn oll an wlas na— rag tasigow an menedh a dheuth, yn kettep penn, woja hy bos nos tewal, ha gonis yn privedh orty.

Own dhodho lemmyn a’y ambos dibreder re beu gwres ganjo dhe’n bocka, an mytern eth arta dhe’n menedh esa a-drev dh’y lys, rag bos y honan, mar calla predery war neppyth aral a alja bos gorres whath dhe’n eglos; mes hag ev ow kerdhes ogas dhe unn fow esa down y’n dor, ena y clewas, del hevela, lev flogh bian esa owth ola wherow, ha’y vamm a gana dhodho rag y gomfortya, maga fedhal avel marghvran nownek, bo ogas dh’y:—

Na ol, na ol, ow meppyk wheg;

Ha mar qwredh tewel,

Sur, Hager-Awel,

Dha das, a dheu

A-vorow tre,

Ow tri colon mytern, genes a-bleg,

Dhe wary genjy, yn tegen teg!

Kyn nag o maskenys heb nam an geryow na, whath an mytern a veu lowenhes yn fras orth aga clewes, rag dredha y whodhva hanow an bocka!— Ef a dreusas a’n menedh pur uskys, ow ponya yn-nans bys dhe’n cita, hag ena ev a welas bos an bocka ow mos yn-ban, bys yn uhella pynakyl an eglos, rag settya warnodho an culyek awel gorowrys (= owrys) a wrussa hy diwedha.

Ev pan welas henna, war-not y crias pur uhel orto, “Set e yn compes, Hager-Awel!” ha bocka an menedh, kettel glewas bos dismygys y hanow, a godhas, scat! dhyworth an pynakyl bys y’n leur, ha terry ena dhe vil dymmik munys, kepar ha pan veu va gwres a weder tanow! Ha marj ellewgh whi neb termyn dhe’n cita na, whi a wello whath an benneglos, dhedhy culyek awel cammes (= plegyes) poran kepar del y’n gasas.

An fin.


7 thoughts on “Cornel Kernowek: Hager-Awel

  1. I’m French and I’m a teacher. I found your blog while looking for a recipe in Kernewek, for I want to work with my students with recipes in several languages. Do you think you could help me ? I would need a desert recipe and it’s translation, idealy a scones recipe. If you think you could help, could you contact me by email ? I’d be ever so grateful !

  2. Hi there, nice translation Linus, a couple of things (not recipe related alas)

    1) Ef pan welas henna, … interesting construction –
    (we can see a few of these in the corpus among results of the regular expression “\b(Ev|My|Ty|Hi|I|Ni|my|ty|ev|hi|i|ni) pan” , eg OM 213 “My pan esen ov quandra/clewys…” using the excellent Keith Bailey-hosted middle Cornish corpus ( and the also excellent Laurence Anthony corpus software AntConc ( which you recommended in Skians 2014, with your own excellent reg-ex cheat sheet!)

    2) ha bucca an meneth, …, a-godhas, scat! dyworth an pynakel – re “scat!”, did the original writer write “scat” ? Only, this spelling of syllable nucleus (onset?) is not found in either middle or later corpus (e.g. “squatcha” in J Boson’s pilchard rhyme (, and “squattys” in CW 1705). It *is*, however, according to the pronunciation (and occasional spelling) of the same word in present day Cornish English.

    Various, um, sort of hagiographic projects are under way with recording 20C Cornish writings of RM Nance, H Jenner & co at the mo – maybe someone working with those could help identify the writer.

    • Ew, nag ewa? Bes na wrugavy an treylyans, en anfujyk; gwrys ew gen Mordon (me a breder an dedhyow ma), ‘th erovy ow predery. Adro dhe’th nessa qwestyon, nag eus copy an whedhel ma na fella, res via dhis ytho y jeckya e’n Old Cornwall dyllyes yn 1931.

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